http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2000/summer/philippine-insurrection.html The Philippine Insurrection (1899 - 1902) The Philippine Insurrection is a difficult and often confusing war to study. Some historians even disagree on what to call the conflict. Some refer to the war that lasted from 1899 to 1902 in the Philippines as the Philippine Insurrection, Philippine-American War, Filipino-American War, Fil-American War and the Philippine War.1 This article uses the term "Philippine Insurrection" to coincide with the historic records held at NARA. During the Spanish-American War, U.S. forces in the Philippines and Filipino forces led by revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo had a common enemy in Spain. As hostilities came to a close and the United States emerged from the war victorious, Aguinaldo and his supporters were eager for Philippine independence. However, as a result of the Treaty of Paris, December 10, 1898, the United States gained the Philippines as a U.S. territory. Many in the islands were not eager to see one colonial power replaced by another. This desire for independence soon resulted in armed resistance against the United States. The Philippine Insurrection began with a skirmish on the night of February 4, 1899, just outside of Manila. Fighting initially centered on the area around the city, with Filipino forces employing traditional European style warfare. These tactics eventually gave way to guerilla warfare, which soon spread to several other Philippine islands. As noted by historian Brian McAllister Linn, "in some areas there was long and bitter armed struggle marked by atrocities and widespread destruction, but in other areas— roughly half of the archipelago's provinces— there was little or no fighting."2 Approximately 125,000 troops served in the Philippines during the war. After more than three years of fighting, at a cost of 400 million dollars and approximately 4,200 American dead and 2,900 wounded, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed an end to the insurrection in the Philippines on July 4, 1902.3 Despite Roosevelt's proclamation, isolated and sporadic guerilla activity continued throughout the period of American rule, which lasted until 1946, when the Philippines finally gained their independence. Read more at the link.