This is abridged from Im Fielde Unbesiegt. The Gallipoli campaign resulted from the efforts of Great Britain and France to force the passage of the Dardenelles and the Bosporus, in order to gain a direct route for the despatch of Russian troops, supplies and raw material to the West, and of material of war from the West to Russia: and also in order to cut the communications between the Central Powers and Asiastic Turkey. No less than 100,000 British, apart from the French contingent, were employed in this operation, which was preceeded by an unsuccessful attack by the Entente fleet on March 18th, 1915 - an attack resulting only in the loss of several capital ships and a large number of smaller craft. In order to follow up their attack and effect a disembarkation at the mouth of the Straits, a force of 80,000 to 90,000 Allied troops, under General Sir Ian Hamilton, was assembled on the islands of Lemnos and Imbros. In view of these facts, Enver Pasha had, on 25th March, 1915, formed the Fifth Turkish Army (consisting at first of the five divisions stationed on either shore of the Dardenelles, and reinforced early in April by thr 3rd Division sent up by sea from Constantinople) under the command of the head of the German Military Commission in Turkey, Marshall Liman von Sanders. Two divisions of this Army were held ready in each of the three sectors considered to be especially menaced; the Gulf of Saros, the southern end of the Gallipoli peninsula and the Asiastic coast. Outposts watched all the line of the shore. The British landing took place on 25th April under cover of the guns of the Allied fleet, which heavily shelled all the coast from Kum Kale to Ari Burnu. Over 200 men of war and transports, with a far larger number of pinnaces and smaller vessels, were counted by the Turkish artillery observers. The main attack was accompanied by feints delivered simultaneously against the Gulf of Sarosand Besika Bay. As soon as the landing parties were seen to be approaching the shore, the forward Turkish posts opened fire, and the main bodies in rear were brought forward. On the south flank the French got on shore at Kum Kale, but were finally driven back to their ships by the 3rd Turkish Division on 29th April, after four day's fighting. Picked English troops established themselves on the southern end of the peninsula at Sedd-ul-Bahr, despite heavy losses. Trench lines were finally constructed by both sides across the narrow strip of land; the two Turkish divisions from the Gulf of Saros, and the majority of the 3rd Division from the Asiastic shore was brought up, and this sector continued for months to be the scene of heavy fighting. An attempted landing at Gaba Tepe, on the 25th April, was beaten off, but the Anzac Corps conquered and held a small strip of the coast to the west of Ari Burnu. Here, again, repeated attacks made no important headway against Turkish defences.