Adolphe Celestin Pegoud (13 June 1889 - 31 August 1915) was a well known French aviator who became the first fighter ace. Pegoud served in the French Army from 1907 to 1913. Immediately thereafter he began flying, earned his pilot's certificate, and in a few months, on 21 September 1913, as a test pilot for Louis Blériot, in a Bleriot model XI monoplane and in a series of test flights exploring the limits of airplane maneuvers, he flew a loop, believing it to be the world's first. Pegoud's feat was consequently widely publicized and believed by many to be the first loop, although Pyotr Nesterov, a Russian army pilot, had flown the first one on 9 September 1913, just 12 days earlier, in a Nieuport IV monoplane at an army airfield near Kiev. Pegoud also was the first pilot to make a parachute jump from an airplane. He also became a popular instructor of French and other European fledgling pilots. At the start of World War I Pegoud volunteered for flying duty and was immediately accepted as an observation pilot. On 5 February 1915 he and his gunner were credited with shooting down two German aircraft and forcing another to land. Soon he was flying single-seat aircraft and in April claimed two further victories. His sixth success came in July. It is not known how many of Pegoud's victories involved destruction of enemy aircraft, as early air combat was rare enough to warrant credit for a forced landing. However, it is certain that Pegoud, rather than Roland Garros (three documented victories), was the first pilot to achieve acedom of any sort. On 31 August 1915 Pegoud was shot down, ironically by one of his prewar German students, Unteroffizier Kandulski, while intercepting a German reconnaissance aircraft ...... He was 26 years old. The same German crew later dropped a funeral wreath above French lines.